Better adherence to a Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, according to a study reported in 2016 in Ophthalmology.
Background: Macular degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss, affecting more than 10 million Americans – more than cataracts and glaucoma combined. At present, it is considered incurable. One can compared the human eye to a camera, with the macula the central and most sensitive area of the so-called film. When it is working properly the macula collects highly detailed images at the center of your field of vision and sends the information up the optic nerve to the brain, where we interpret the signals as sight. When the cells of the macula deteriorate, images are not received correctly. While early macular degeneration may not affect your vision, as the disease progresses, you may experience wavy or blurred vision. If the condition continues to worsen, central vision may be completely lost (although peripheral vision may be retained). A Mediterranean diet has been inversely associated with heart attack, stroke, cancer, and mortality. But what about eye health, including macular degeneration?
The Study: Researchers evaluated 5060 patients aged 65 years or older, chosen randomly from centers in Norway, Estonia, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Greece, and Spain between 2001 and 2002. Dietary intake during the previous 12 months was evaluated, which captured information about consumption of items such as olive oil, fish, wine, fruit, legumes, and meat/meat products. All patients had eye exams, including digital retinal photographs, and blood samples were collected to evaluate antioxidant levels (including lutein, zeaxanthin, carotene, and lycopene). In addition, information was collected regarding smoking and alcohol use and environmental exposure. The mean age among participants was 73.6 years, and 55% were women.
Results: The researchers found that, among the 4753 participants with full dietary data, individuals with a high adherence to a Mediterranean diet had the lowest odds of neovascular advanced macular degeneration, dropping their risk by about half.
My Take: We cannot establish causality between consuming a Mediterranean diet and the risk of macular degeneration. In addition, self-reporting of dietary information may lead to bias. Still, given the good effects of the diet on the risk of heart attack stroke, and cancer, I am gonna go have some Italian food! I’m Dr. Michael Hunter.
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References: Ophthalmology. Published online November 5, 2016; https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration