How Exercise Reduces Dementia Risk

women walking exercise
Key Point: Physical exercise seems beneficial in the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia in old age, numerous studies have shown. Now researchers have explored in one of the first studies worldwide how exercise affects brain metabolism. Their conclusion: Regular physical exercise not only enhances fitness but also has a positive impact on brain metabolism.

Background: Numerous studies have shown that physical exercise seems beneficial in the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia in old age. Researchers at Goethe University Frankfurt explored how exercise affects brain metabolism. They examined the effects of regular exercise on brain metabolism and memory of 60 participants ages between 65 and 85 in a randomised controlled trial.

The Study: Researchers examined participants in the SMART study (Sport and Metabolism in Older Persons, an MRT Study) by assessing movement-related parameters, cardiopulmonary fitness and cognitive performance. In addition, they used magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure brain metabolism and structure.

Following this examination, participants rode an exercise bike three times a week over 12 weeks. The 30-minute training sessions were individually adapted to each participant’s performance level. Researchers then re-examined the participants to understand the effects of the physical activity on brain metabolism, cognitive performance and brain structure. The researchers also investigated to what extent exercise had led to an improvement in the participants’ physical fitness.

Results: As expected, physical activity influenced brain metabolism: It prevented an increase in choline. The concentration of this metabolite often rises as a result of the increased loss of nerve cells, which typically occurs in the case of Alzheimer’s disease. Physical exercise led to stable cerebral choline concentrations in the training group, whereas choline levels increased in the control group. Physical fitness also improved, with better cardiac efficiency after the training period. Overall, these findings suggest that physical exercise not only improves physical fitness but also protects cells.

I’m Dr. Michael Hunter.

_________________________

The small print: The material presented herein is informational only, and is not designed to provide specific guidance for an individual. Please check with a valued health care provider with any questions or concerns. As for me, I am a Harvard- , Yale- and UPenn-educated radiation oncologist, and I practice in the Seattle, WA (USA) area. I feel genuinely privileged to be able to share with you. If you enjoyed today’s offering, please consider clicking the follow button at the bottom of this page.

Available now: Understand Colon Cancer in 60 Minutes; Understand Brain Glioma in 60 Minutes. Both can be found at the Apple Ibooks store. Coming Soon for iPad: Understand Breast Cancer in 60 Minutes; Understand Colon Cancer in 60 Minutes. Available now: Understand Colon Cancer in 60 Minutes; Understand Brain Glioma in 60 Minutes. Thank you.

 



References:

  1. S Matura, J Fleckenstein, R Deichmann, T Engeroff, E Füzéki, E Hattingen, R Hellweg, B Lienerth, U Pilatus, S Schwarz, V A Tesky, L Vogt, W Banzer, J Pantel. Effects of aerobic exercise on brain metabolism and grey matter volume in older adults: results of the randomised controlled SMART trial. Translational Psychiatry, 2017; 7 (7): e1172 DOI: 10.1038/tp.2017.135
  2. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170721090107.htm

John McCain and Glioblastoma

US Senator John McCain recently had removal of an aggressive brain tumor known as glioblastoma multiform. It is a highly aggressive form of cancer that often returns quickly to the same spot, even with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. McCain;s tumor was associated with a small blood clot above the Arizona Republican’s left eye, and surgeons removed it using a minimally invasive procedure. A statement from the senator’s office explains that imaging suggests that the neurosurgeon successfully removed the abnormality, at least the gross, measurable tumor.

What is Glioblastoma?

A brain tumor is a mass of abnormal cells that originated in the brain itself. GMB arises from supportive tissue (not the nerves themselves) in the brain (glial cells). Rarely, glioblastoma runs in families, but most individuals with GBM have no family history of the disease. While cancer can spread to the brain from other organs such as the lungs, GBM begins in the brain and only uncommonly spreads outside of it. For most individuals, we do not know the cause of GBM, but exposure to radiation to the brain is a known risk factor for the future development of cancer of the brain.

Next steps?

Following a recovery period of 3 to 4 weeks, patients typically proceed to radiation therapy (RT). The RT targets the tumor (or where it use to be) and often the surrounding edema (water) plus an inch or so. Often, those with GBM also have an oral chemotherapy known as temozolamide at the same time as radiation therapy (and sometimes after it). This approach of fractionated (for example, Monday through Friday for 6 weeks) radiotherapy plus oral chemotherapy is a category 1 recommendation of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, a group of some of the top cancer treatment facilities in America. For those over 70, one may consider this approach versus a shortened course of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy with deferred radiation therapy.

In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration approached a portable medical device that generates low-intensity electric fields termed Tumor Treating Fields (TTF) for GBM. The use of this device (placed on the head) may yield results similar to chemotherapy, but with lower toxicity and improved quality of life.

Prognosis

Half of patients will survive beyond about 18 months. While 10 year survival is quite uncommon, it is possible. We need better treatments, and clinical trials are an important part of achieving this. I’m Dr. Michael Hunter.

_________________________

The small print: The material presented herein is informational only, and is not designed to provide specific guidance for an individual. Please check with a valued health care provider with any questions or concerns. As for me, I am a Harvard- , Yale- and UPenn-educated radiation oncologist, and I practice in the Seattle, WA (USA) area. I feel genuinely privileged to be able to share with you. If you enjoyed today’s offering, please consider clicking the follow button at the bottom of this page.

Available now: Understand Colon Cancer in 60 Minutes; Understand Brain Glioma in 60 Minutes. Both can be found at the Apple Ibooks store. Coming Soon for iPad: Understand Breast Cancer in 60 Minutes; Understand Colon Cancer in 60 Minutes. Available now: Understand Colon Cancer in 60 Minutes; Understand Brain Glioma in 60 Minutes. Thank you.

 

John McCain and Glioblastoma

brain tissue.jpg

US Senator John McCain recently had removal of an aggressive brain tumor known as glioblastoma multiform. It is a highly aggressive form of cancer that often returns quickly to the same spot, even with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. McCain;s tumor was associated with a small blood clot above the Arizona Republican’s left eye, and surgeons removed it using a minimally invasive procedure. A statement from the senator’s office explains that imaging suggests that the neurosurgeon successfully removed the abnormality, at least the gross, measurable tumor.

What is Glioblastoma?

A brain tumor is a mass of abnormal cells that originated in the brain itself. GMB arises from supportive tissue (not the nerves themselves) in the brain (glial cells). Rarely, glioblastoma runs in families, but most individuals with GBM have no family history of the disease. While cancer can spread to the brain from other organs such as the lungs, GBM begins in the brain and only uncommonly spreads outside of it. For most individuals, we do not know the cause of GBM, but exposure to radiation tot he brain is a know risk factor for the future development of cancer of the brain.

Next steps?

Following a recovery period of 3 to 4 weeks, patients typically proceed to radiation therapy (RT). The RT targets the tumor (or where it use to be) and often the surrounding edema (water) plus an inch or so. Often, those with GBM also have an oral chemotherapy known as temozolamide at the same time as radiation therapy (and sometimes after it). This approach of fractionated (for example, Monday through Friday for 6 weeks) radiotherapy plus oral chemotherapy is a category 1 recommendation of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, a group of some of the top cancer treatment facilities in America. For those over 70, one may consider this approach versus a shortened course of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy with deferred radiation therapy.

In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration approached a portable medical device that generates low-intensity electric fields termed Tumor Treating Fields (TTF) for GBM. The use of this device (placed on the head) may yield results similar to chemotherapy, but with lower toxicity and improved quality of life.

Prognosis

Half of patients will survive beyond about 18 months. While 10 year survival is quite uncommon, it is possible. We need better treatments, and clinical trials are an important part of achieving this. I’m Dr. Michael Hunter.

_________________________

The small print: The material presented herein is informational only, and is not designed to provide specific guidance for an individual. Please check with a valued health care provider with any questions or concerns. As for me, I am a Harvard- , Yale- and UPenn-educated radiation oncologist, and I practice in the Seattle, WA (USA) area. I feel genuinely privileged to be able to share with you. If you enjoyed today’s offering, please consider clicking the follow button at the bottom of this page.

Available now: Understand Colon Cancer in 60 Minutes; Understand Brain Glioma in 60 Minutes. Both can be found at the Apple Ibooks store. Coming Soon for iPad: Understand Breast Cancer in 60 Minutes; Understand Colon Cancer in 60 Minutes. Available now: Understand Colon Cancer in 60 Minutes; Understand Brain Glioma in 60 Minutes. Thank you.

 

Is Walking as Good as Running?

People who do equivalent amounts of running and walking have the same degree of benefit in terms of blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, and heart disease.

Background: According to CDC classification, running is a “vigorous” exercise, because runners usually end up sweaty and short of breath. They burn about eight times more energy than they would sitting on the couch. Meanwhile walking is “moderate” exercise that involves 3.8 times more energy than sitting.

 

The Study: When the 33,000 participants in the National Runners’ Health Study were compared to the 15,000 participants in the National Walkers’ Health Study, the runners appeared to have much better heart health than the walkers. Their risk of hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes was reduced by 38, 36, and 71 percent, respectively, regardless of how much running they reported doing. So running is not only sweatier, it’s also healthier, right?

Researchers took the data from the walkers’ and runners’ health study, and controlled for how much energy the exercisers were expending. By looking at it this way, they were attempting to compare the inherent benefits of each form of exercise. The participants, who ranged in age from 18 to 80, all reported their height, weight, diet, and the miles per week they spent walking or running. They were followed for about 6 years, during which time the researchers tracked all health problems.

Results:Regardless of whether exercise was vigorous (running) or not (walking), as long as participants used the same amount of energy, they saw more or less equivalent health benefits. Runners saw a reduced risk of hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, and coronary artery disease by 4.2, 4.3, 12.1, and 4.5 percent, respectively. The walkers’ risk reduction for each condition was 7.2, 7, 12.3, and 9.3 percent — amounts that didn’t differ significantly from the runners’ results. The more energy walkers and runners used, the more their cardiovascular health improved.

What Does This Mean? The key to improved cardiovascular health, according to this study, is calorie expenditure, regardless of how it’s expended. Runners aren’t healthier by virtue of being runners — they’re just more efficient in their exercising. If you prefer walking, you can be just as well off, health-wise. “Assuming a slow jogging speed of a 12 minute mile, compared to a walking speed of 17 minute miles, you would need to walk about 50 percent further to expend the same energy as running,” lead author Paul Williams explains. In terms of time, “you would need to walk for about twice as long.”

 

I’m Dr. Michael Hunter. Of course, the disclaimer: Do not begin an exercise program without input from an appropriate medical professional. Many can simply start with a brisk walk for 30 minutes daily, 5 days per week. Have a wonderful day!

References:

  1. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/04/study-walking-can-be-as-good-as-running/274738/?utm_source=atlfb
  2. Walking Versus Running for Hypertension, Cholesterol, and Diabetes Mellitus Risk Reduction” is published in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

Poor adolescent diet associated with premenopausal breast cancer

“During adolescence and early adulthood, when the mammary gland is rapidly developing and is therefore particularly susceptible to lifestyle factors, it is important to consume a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes and to avoid soda consumption and a high intake of sugar, refined carbohydrates, and red and processed meats.”

– lead author Karin B. Michels, ScD, PhD, professor and chair of the Department of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles

Key points: Women who consumed a diet associated with chronic inflammation  as adolescents or young adults appear to have a higher risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer, as compared with those who had a diet not linked to inflammation.

Background: Researchers used data from 45,204 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II who had completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1998, when they were ages 33 to 52, about their diet during high School. The investigators then assed adult diet by first using a food frequency questionnaire in 1991, when participants were ages 27 to 44, and then every 4 years thereafter. They gave each woman’s diet an inflammatory score using a previously method that links diet with inflammatory markers in the blood.

During 22 years of follow-up, 870 of the women who completed the high school food frequency questionnaire were diagnosed with premenopausal breast cancer and 490 were diagnosed with postmenopausal breast cancer. When women were divided into five groups based on the inflammatory score of their adolescent diet, those in the highest score group had a 35 percent higher risk for premenopausal breast cancer relative to those in the lowest score group. When the same analysis was done based on early adulthood diet, those in the highest inflammatory score group had a 41 percent higher risk for premenopausal breast cancer relative to those in the lowest score group.

I’m Michael Hunter, the Breast Cancer Doctor.